is a tough and flexible substance that is found throughout the body and
has a variety of functions.
- lines joints (that make up
- and gives structure to:
bones - is mostly converted to bone in adult
- the ears,
- bronchial tubes,
is a connective tissue that has no nerves or blood vessels in it.
(Cartilage damage is
difficult to heal).
is composed of: chondrocytes embedded in a matrix of type II collagen
and chondroitin sulfate;
- is divided into three types:
hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage and fibrocartilage.
nonspecific term for any disease of cartilage (any disease of
cartilage).McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of
Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Diseases
or conditions that affect the cartilage.
diseases affecting/involving the cartilage are:Trauma
The cartilage covering bones (articular
cartilage) is thinned, eventually completely worn out, resulting in a
"bone against bone" joint, reduced motion and pain. Osteoarthritis is
very common, affects the joints exposed to high stress and is therefore
considered the result of "wear and tear" rather than a true disease.Rheumatoid
arthritisSpinal disc herniationComplications
of surgical procedures on a joint
is the second most frequent primary malignant tumor of bone.
Chondrosarcomas are a group of tumors with highly diverse features and
behavior patterns, ranging from slow-growing non-metastasizing lesions
to highly aggressive metastasizing sarcomas.Polychondritis
is a serious, progressive, relapsing
episodic condition characterized by inflammation and degeneration of
cartilage in the body that affects multiple joints The duration and
severity of the episodes can vary. CostochondritisTietze's
It is also
known as chronic atrophic polychondritis, Meyenburg-Altherr-Uehlinger
syndrome, von Meyenburg's disease, generalized chondromalacia and
: Inflammation and swelling of the cartilage
that joins the ribs to the breast bone. Inflammation of cartilage in
the ribs is causing chest pain. Slipped
(slipped capital femoral epiphysis)
Hip abnormality where the growing end
(epiphysis) of the thigh bone slips from the ball of the hip joint. It
may occur in one or both legs and causes hip stiffness, limping and
pain. The condition mostly occurs in teenagers and it is more common in
males. There is no known cause but obesity increases the risk. Often
leads to osteoarthritis in later life.Chondromalacia
- also called
chondromalaciapatellae is a term used to describe damage or
softening of the articular cartilage on the underside of the kneecap
(patella). The softening can be felt with a blunt probe during surgery.
The underside of the kneecap, and the top of
the thigh bone (femur) are both covered with a smooth and slippery
(articular) cartilage that allows these two bones to slide easily over
one another when the knee flexes. If this cartilage is damaged, the
surface becomes rough and gets irritated with movement. Damage can be
minor or severe, and may result in varying degrees of pain.
injury can be caused by:- overuse of the joint;
simple wear and tear and arthritis as we age;
- acute injury
such as a fall,
- problems with knee alignment,
even muscle weakness.
There is a lot of confusion
in the literature about chondromalacia and chondropathy.Osteochondritis
dissecans is a painful condition within a joint of the body
in in which fragments of cartilage or bone have become loose
within a joint, leading to pain and inflammation. The loose piece may
stay in place or slide around making the joint stiff and unstable.
These fragments are sometimes referred to as "joint mice".
rare condition with a complex etiology, and can be caused by:
genetic, hormonal, environmental and nutritional factors. -
an interruption of the blood supply to section of bone in a joint which
can result in a piece of bone breaking off and causing pain.
a lesion formed within the cartilage layer itself;
The knee is
most often affected but it can occur in ankles and elbows.
dissecans can be often treated surgically.Chondrodysplasia
A disturbance that affects the development
of the cartilage of the long bones and that especially involves the
region of the epiphysial plates, resulting in arrested growth of the
long bones. Also called chondrodystrophia.Online
Chondropathy - Chondrodystrophy
evaluation of chondropathy in osteoarthritis of the knee.
of Chondral and Osteochondral Injuries of the Knee - Wheeless' Textbook
of the Musculoskeletal System and Connective Tissue (710-739)
Atlas chirurgical de médecine du
sport - De Mark Miller,Richard-F Howard,Kevin-D Plancher